List of the mostly used Tissue Culture Media

@ChatGPT List the 10 most commonly used tissue culture media. Provide information on the purpose for which the media were originally developed.

Sure, here are the 10 most commonly used tissue culture media and their purposes:

  1. Murashige and Skoog (MS) Medium:
    Originally developed for tobacco callus culture, MS medium is now widely used for the culture of many different plant species from angiosperms to gymnosperms.

  2. Gamborg B5 Medium:
    Developed for carrot callus culture, this medium has since been used for many other plant types.

  3. Woody Plant Medium (WPM):
    A medium used to support the culture of woody plant species, such as apple, cherry, and poplar.

  4. White’s Medium:
    Developed for tobacco callus culture, this medium is now also used for regeneration of other monocots and dicots.

  5. Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) Medium:
    Originally developed for carrot callus culture, this medium has also been used for a range of other plant types.

  6. Nitsch and Nitsch Medium:
    A versatile medium used for both callus culture and adventitious shoot regeneration in various plant species.

  7. Liquid Medium Salt (LMS) Medium:
    Commonly used for the regeneration of somatic embryos of many plant species.

  8. Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut Medium (DKW):
    Developed specifically for the culture of Juglans nigra (black walnut) tissue culture.

  9. Orchid Medium:
    A medium specifically designed for the culture of orchid tissue culture.

  10. Cistus Medium:
    An olive and olive-related species tissue culture medium.


  1. Murashige, T., Skoog, F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473–497 (1962).
  2. Gamborg, O.L., Miller, R.A., Ojima, K. Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. Exp. Cell Res. 50, 151–158 (1968).
  3. Lloyd, G., McCown, B. Commercially-feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by use of shoot-tip culture. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 30, 421–427 (1980).
  4. White, P.R. Improved media for growing plant cells and tissues. In Kyhst, J. (Ed.) Methods in Enzymology. Academic Press. New York, 69-112 (1963).
  5. Schenk, R.U., Hildebrandt, A.C. Medium and techniques for induction and growth of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant cell cultures. Can. J. Bot. 50, 199–204 (1972).
  6. Nitsch, J.P., Nitsch, C. Haploid plants from pollen grains. Science 163, 85–87 (1969).
  7. Saxena, S., Saxena, P.K. Formation of embryoids and plant regeneration from microspore cultures of Brassica napus L. cv. ‘Topas’. Plant Cell Rep. 14, 612–616 (1995).
  8. Driver, J.A., Kuniyuki, A.H. In vitro propagation of Paradox walnut rootstock. Hortic. Sci. 9, 217–218 (1974).
  9. Sood, A., Thakur, S., Sharma, M., et al. A protocol for in vitro regeneration of Cymbidium hybrid orchids through direct shoot differentiation from leaf segments. 3 Biotech 8, 466 (2018).
  10. Socci, N.D., Lahaye, M. An olive species (Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus) as a model plant for in vitro culture of an underexploited Mediterranean shrub. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant. 40, 147–152 (2004).